Beginner’s Tutorial: Introduction to Title Search

Beginner's Tutorial

Title search is a crucial aspect of real estate transactions that ensures the property in question is legally clear to be transferred from the seller to the buyer. This comprehensive guide will delve into the various facets of title search, exploring what it is, why it’s important, the process involved, the types of title searches, and common issues found during a title search.

What is a Title Search?

A title search is a detailed examination of public records related to a property to establish its legal ownership and to identify any claims, liens, or other encumbrances that might affect the property. This search involves scrutinizing documents such as deeds, court records, property tax records, and other legal instruments that have been recorded over time. The primary goal is to ensure that the title is clear and that the seller has the legal right to transfer ownership to the buyer.

Why is a Title Search Important?

Title search is essential for several reasons:

1. Ensures Legal Ownership

  • Verification of Ownership: A title search verifies that the seller is the legitimate owner of the property and has the legal right to sell it. This prevents any fraudulent sale attempts.
  • Prevents Fraud: By confirming the ownership and the chain of title, a title search can uncover any fraudulent activities, such as false claims of ownership.

2. Identifies Liens and Encumbrances

  • Unpaid Taxes: A title search will reveal any unpaid property taxes, which are critical as they can become the responsibility of the new owner if not settled before the purchase.
  • Mortgages and Loans: Existing mortgages or loans on the property must be resolved before the property can be sold. A title search identifies these financial obligations.

3. Uncovers Property Restrictions

  • Easements: Easements grant others the right to use parts of the property, such as for utility lines. These can affect the use and value of the property.
  • Covenants and Restrictions: These are agreements or stipulations placed on the property that may restrict its use. Understanding these is crucial for the buyer’s future plans for the property.

4. Protects Buyer’s Investment

  • Title Insurance: A clear title search is necessary to obtain title insurance, which protects the buyer from future claims against the property.
  • Negotiation Tool: Any issues found during a title search can be used to negotiate terms with the seller, ensuring that problems are resolved before the sale is finalized.

The Process of a Title Search

The title search process involves several detailed steps to ensure the title is clear and free from any issues that could affect the transfer of ownership.

1. Order the Title Search

  • Initiation: The title search is usually initiated by a real estate attorney or a title company once an offer on a property is accepted. This order kicks off the comprehensive review process.

2. Examine Public Records

  • Deeds and Conveyances: Reviewing the chain of title involves examining the history of property ownership. Each deed and conveyance must be scrutinized to ensure a clear line of ownership.
  • Tax Records: Checking for unpaid property taxes is crucial as they can become a lien against the property.
  • Court Records: Court records are examined to uncover any legal judgments or liens against the property. This includes looking for bankruptcy filings, divorce decrees, and other legal proceedings that might affect ownership.

3. Analyze Findings

  • Ownership Verification: Confirming the current legal owner is a primary objective. This involves verifying that all previous transfers were legal and properly recorded.
  • Encumbrance Identification: Any liens, easements, or other encumbrances must be noted. These findings are critical for understanding the full legal status of the property.

4. Issue a Title Report

  • Summary: The title company or attorney will compile a report summarizing the findings of the title search. This report will highlight any defects or clouds on the title.
  • Disclosure: The report is shared with the buyer, seller, and lenders involved in the transaction.

5. Resolve Issues

  • Clear Liens: Any outstanding liens need to be paid off or otherwise resolved. This could involve paying back taxes, settling debts, or negotiating with lienholders.
  • Address Encumbrances: Easements or restrictive covenants that could affect the buyer’s use of the property need to be addressed. Sometimes, legal action or negotiations are required to remove or modify these encumbrances.

6. Obtain Title Insurance

  • Protection: Once the title is clear, the buyer can purchase title insurance. This insurance protects the buyer against future claims or disputes over the property.

Types of Title Searches

Different types of title searches are conducted depending on the specific needs of the transaction. Here are the main types:

1. Full Title Search

  • Comprehensive Review: This search covers the entire history of the property, typically going back 40-60 years or more. It’s the most thorough type of search and is usually required for most home purchases.

2. Current Owner Search

  • Focus on Current Owner: This search looks only at the period of ownership by the current owner. It is often used in refinancing scenarios where the borrower already owns the property.

3. Two-Owner Search

  • Limited Scope: This search examines the current and previous owners, providing a more limited review than a full title search. It is commonly used for residential transactions.

4. Limited Title Search

  • Specific Focus: This type of search targets specific aspects of the title, such as liens or encumbrances, without a full historical review. It’s often used for specific legal or financial purposes.

Common Issues Found During a Title Search

A title search can uncover various issues that need to be addressed before the property can be legally transferred. Here are some common problems:

1. Liens and Judgments

  • Mechanic’s Liens: These liens are filed by contractors or suppliers who have not been paid for work done on the property. They must be resolved before the sale.
  • Tax Liens: Unpaid property taxes result in tax liens, which need to be settled to ensure a clear title.

2. Easements

  • Utility Easements: These grant utility companies the right to use parts of the property for infrastructure, such as power lines or sewer pipes.
  • Access Easements: These allow others, like neighbors, to cross the property to reach their own land.

3. Title Defects

  • Clerical Errors: Mistakes in public records, such as misspelled names or incorrect property descriptions, need correction to clear the title.
  • Missing Heirs: If previous owners died without a will, there might be heirs with claims to the property that need to be addressed.

4. Unrecorded Interests

  • Unrecorded Deeds: Deeds that were not properly recorded with the county can cause issues as they might not be recognized legally.
  • Unreleased Mortgages: Sometimes, mortgages that have been paid off are not officially released, which can create confusion and potential claims against the property.

5. Boundary Disputes

  • Survey Errors: Inaccurate surveys can lead to disputes over property boundaries, which must be resolved to ensure clear ownership.
  • Encroachments: Structures like fences or buildings that intrude on neighboring properties need to be addressed legally.

Additional Considerations

1. Title Insurance Policies

  • Owner’s Policy: This policy protects the buyer’s equity in the property, covering legal fees and potential losses from title disputes.
  • Lender’s Policy: This policy protects the lender’s interest in the property until the mortgage is paid off, ensuring the lender is covered in case of title issues.

2. Role of Title Companies

  • Facilitation: Title companies play a critical role in the title search process, from conducting the search to issuing title insurance and managing the closing process.
  • Escrow Services: Often, title companies also handle escrow services, managing the funds and documents involved in the transaction.

3. Impact on Closing

  • Contingency Resolution: Title issues discovered during the search must be resolved before closing. These are often stipulated as contingencies in the purchase contract.
  • Delay in Closing: Unresolved title issues can delay the closing process until they are cleared, potentially affecting the buyer’s plans and financing.

4. Cost of Title Search

  • Variable Costs: The cost of a title search varies by location, complexity, and the type of property. It typically ranges from a few hundred to several thousand dollars and is often included in closing costs.
  • Who Pays: In most cases, the buyer pays for the title search and title insurance as part of the closing costs, though this can sometimes be negotiated with the seller.


A thorough title search is an indispensable step in any real estate transaction. It safeguards both buyers and lenders from potential legal and financial complications, ensuring a smooth transfer of property ownership. By understanding the importance, process, types, and common issues related to title searches, buyers can make informed decisions and protect their investments. Whether you’re a first-time homebuyer or an experienced real estate investor, comprehending the intricacies of title searches will help you navigate the property buying process with confidence and peace of mind.