Conducting a Title Search: Legal Guidelines

Conducting a Title Search

A title search is a crucial step in any real estate transaction. It ensures that the property in question has a clear title, free of any legal issues that could affect the transfer of ownership. This comprehensive article will cover who conducts a title search, why it is necessary, the legal documents involved, how it protects buyers and sellers, and the role of title insurance.

Who Conducts a Title Search?

Real Estate Attorneys

Real estate attorneys are often hired to conduct title searches, especially in more complex transactions. They have the legal expertise to thoroughly examine property records and identify potential issues that might affect the sale.

Title Companies

Title companies specialize in conducting title searches and issuing title insurance. They have access to public records and other resources necessary to verify the legal status of a property. Title companies employ title examiners who are trained to look for discrepancies in the title history.

Real Estate Agents

While not typically responsible for conducting title searches, real estate agents may coordinate with title companies and attorneys to ensure that the title search is completed. They play a crucial role in facilitating communication between the buyer, seller, and the title company or attorney.

County Clerks and Recorders

County clerks and recorders maintain public records, including property deeds, mortgages, and other legal documents. They provide access to these records, which are essential for conducting a title search. Title examiners often visit the county clerk’s office to retrieve necessary documents.

Why is a Title Search Necessary in Real Estate Transactions?

Ensures Clear Ownership

A title search verifies that the seller is the legal owner of the property and has the right to sell it. This prevents fraud and ensures that the buyer is purchasing from the rightful owner.

Identifies Liens and Encumbrances

Title searches uncover any existing liens or encumbrances on the property, such as unpaid taxes, mortgages, or judgments. These must be resolved before the property can be transferred to the new owner.

Reveals Property Restrictions

The search identifies any easements, covenants, or other restrictions that could affect the use of the property. Understanding these restrictions is crucial for the buyer’s future plans for the property.

Facilitates Financing

Lenders require a clear title before approving a mortgage. A title search provides the necessary assurance to the lender that the property is free of legal issues that could jeopardize their investment.

Protects Against Future Claims

A thorough title search reduces the risk of future claims against the property. By identifying and resolving issues before the sale, both the buyer and seller can avoid potential legal disputes.

Legal Documents Involved in a Title Search


A deed is a legal document that transfers ownership of the property from one party to another. Title searches examine the chain of title, which is the history of all previous ownership transfers.


Mortgages are liens placed on the property by lenders as security for a loan. The title search checks for any existing mortgages that must be satisfied before the property can be sold.

Property Tax Records

Unpaid property taxes can result in a lien against the property. Title searches review tax records to ensure all taxes are paid up to date.


Court judgments against the property owner can result in liens. Title searches identify any judgments that need to be resolved before the sale.

Easements and Covenants

Easements grant others the right to use a portion of the property, while covenants impose restrictions on property use. These documents are reviewed during a title search to identify any third-party rights or restrictions.

Plat Maps and Surveys

These documents provide detailed descriptions of the property’s boundaries and physical features. They are used to verify that the property description in the title matches the actual property.

How Can a Title Search Protect Buyers and Sellers?

For Buyers

  • Avoiding Fraud: A title search verifies that the seller is the legitimate owner, protecting the buyer from fraudulent transactions.
  • Ensuring Clear Title: The search identifies any liens, encumbrances, or other issues that could affect the buyer’s ownership rights.
  • Understanding Property Use: By uncovering easements, covenants, and other restrictions, the buyer gains a clear understanding of how the property can be used.
  • Facilitating Financing: A clear title is necessary for obtaining a mortgage, making the title search an essential step in the financing process.

For Sellers

  • Demonstrating Clear Ownership: Conducting a title search before listing a property shows potential buyers that the seller has clear ownership and is prepared for a smooth transaction.
  • Resolving Issues Early: Identifying and resolving title issues before listing the property can prevent delays and complications during the sale process.
  • Building Trust with Buyers: A thorough title search builds trust with buyers by demonstrating that the seller is transparent and diligent about the legal status of the property.

Understanding Title Insurance and Its Role in a Title Search

What is Title Insurance?

Title insurance is a policy that protects against financial loss resulting from defects in the title that were not discovered during the title search. It provides coverage for legal fees and other costs associated with defending against claims.

Types of Title Insurance

  • Owner’s Policy: This policy protects the buyer’s interest in the property. It covers the full purchase price and remains in effect as long as the buyer owns the property.
  • Lender’s Policy: This policy protects the lender’s interest in the property. It covers the loan amount and remains in effect until the mortgage is paid off.

How Title Insurance Works

  • Issuance: Title insurance is issued after a thorough title search. The insurance company reviews the title search results and identifies any potential risks.
  • Coverage: The policy covers various issues, including liens, encumbrances, defects in the title, and other legal problems that could affect ownership.
  • Claims Process: If a claim arises, the title insurance company will provide legal defense and cover the financial losses up to the policy limit.

Benefits of Title Insurance

  • Peace of Mind: Title insurance provides buyers and lenders with peace of mind, knowing that they are protected against unforeseen title issues.
  • Financial Protection: The policy covers legal fees, court costs, and other expenses related to defending against title claims.
  • Transferability: In some cases, the owner’s policy can be transferred to heirs or new owners, providing ongoing protection.

Additional Considerations in Title Searches

Cost of Title Search and Insurance

  • Variable Costs: The cost of a title search and title insurance varies by location, complexity, and property type. Typically, it ranges from a few hundred to several thousand dollars.
  • Who Pays: Usually, the buyer pays for the title search and title insurance, though this can be negotiated as part of the sale agreement.

Role of Public Records

  • Access to Records: Title examiners rely on public records maintained by county clerks and recorders to conduct a thorough search. These records include deeds, mortgages, liens, judgments, and other legal documents.
  • Accuracy of Records: The accuracy and completeness of public records are crucial for a successful title search. Inaccurate or missing records can lead to title defects.

Potential Title Issues

  • Clerical Errors: Mistakes in public records, such as misspelled names or incorrect property descriptions, can cause title defects.
  • Unrecorded Deeds: Deeds that were not properly recorded with the county can create ownership disputes.
  • Boundary Disputes: Discrepancies in property boundaries, often due to survey errors, can lead to legal conflicts.
  • Missing Heirs: Heirs who were not accounted for in previous transfers can make claims against the property.

Legal and Regulatory Compliance

  • Zoning Laws: Ensuring that the property complies with local zoning regulations is an important aspect of the title search. Non-compliance can affect the property’s use and value.
  • Environmental Regulations: Properties with environmental issues, such as contamination, may have liens or restrictions that must be addressed during the title search.


Conducting a title search is a fundamental step in real estate transactions, providing legal assurance and protecting both buyers and sellers from potential issues. By understanding who conducts a title search, why it is necessary, the legal documents involved, and how it protects parties involved, you can navigate the process more effectively. Title insurance plays a critical role, offering financial protection and peace of mind against unforeseen title defects. Whether you’re buying, selling, or financing a property, a thorough title search and understanding the legal guidelines ensure a smooth and secure transaction.